By Richard J Weiss
From Leonardo to Oppenheimer, from candles to lasers, from cave drawings to cinema, from stonehenge to quantum mechanics, from Genesis to the massive Bang, gentle has crammed our concepts, our manner of lifestyles, our aesthetics, our expertise, and our capability for survival. Richard Weiss leads us alongside those paths over the last 500 gentle years. the best way is lit via pioneers resembling Rembrandt, Einstein, D W Griffith, Newton, and Heisenberg. a short heritage of sunshine, AND those who LIT the way in which is a summer's day roller-coaster trip via 5 centuries of man's achievements in figuring out and manipulating mild. --This textual content refers back to the paperback variation of this title
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Extra info for A Brief History of Light and Those That Lit the Way
14) Note the cos4 θ term in the integral. , when two large surfaces are located relatively close together, the contribution of the extreme areas of the surfaces reduce considerably compared to the central areas. In optical systems, the cos4 θ effect results in lower image flux toward large field angles — the image flux is not constant across the whole image field. 6 Approximation of solid angle Consider a flat plate with dimensions W and D, tilted at an angle θ with respect to the view direction.
8 Performance measures and figures of merit A figure of merit (FOM) or technical performance measure (TPM) is a means to express some aspect of the system’s performance. Whereas a specification is a fixed contractual objective, the FOM/TPM provides measured or predicted information about the system. FOM/TPMs can be used at all levels of design to optimize the design at that particular level. Typical examples include signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of bandwidth, detection range under different conditions, or modulation transfer function (MTF) as a function of aperture diameter.
Intensity is denoted by the symbol I. 3 Graphic representation of radiometric quantities: (a) irradiance, (b) exitance, (c) intensity, and (d) radiance. 1 Nomenclature for radiometric quantities. Basic Quantity Radiant Photon Photometry Energy Radiant energy Qe joule [J] Photon count Q p ,Qq photon count [q] Luminous energy Qν lumen-second [lm·s] Flux Radiant flux Φe watt [W] Radiant exitance Me [W/m2 ] photon flux Φ p ,Φ q photon rate [q/s] Photon exitance M p ,Mq [q/(s·m2 )] Luminous flux Φν lumen [lm] Luminous exitance Mν [lm/m2 ] Intensity Radiant intensity Ie [W/sr] Photon intensity I p ,Iq [q/(s·sr)] Luminous intensity Iν candela=cd=[lm/sr] Radiance Radiance Le [W/(m2 ·sr)] Photon radiance L p ,L q [q/(s·m2 ·sr)] Luminance Lν nit=nt=[lm/(m2 ·sr)] Irradiance Radiant irradiance Ee [W/m2 ] Photon irradiance E p ,Eq [q/(s·m2 )] Illuminance Eν lux=lx=[lm/m2 ] Subscript e p or q ν Exitance Introduction to Radiometry 25 measurement.
A Brief History of Light and Those That Lit the Way by Richard J Weiss