By Hartmut Janocha
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Additional info for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications, Second Edition
Evaluating the Impact of Morphing Technologies on Aircraft Performance. AIAA Paper 2002–1631, April (2002) 13. : Aerodynamic and Static Aeroelastic Characteristics of a Variable-Span Morphing Wing. AIAA J. Aircraft, Vol. 42, No. 2. (2005), pp. 528–534 14. : Embedded Nondestructive Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, and Failure Prevention. , Vol. 37, No. 2, March (2005), pp. 83–105 15. : Embedded Ultrasonics NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors. , Paris, France, RS series 12M, Vol.
Actuators with these materials will be described in detail in Sects. 6; therefore you will ﬁnd only a brief overview below. Shape memory alloys (SMA) undergo solid-to-solid martensitic phase transformations, which allow them to exhibit large, recoverable strains . Nickel-titanium, also known as nitinol (Ni for nickel, Ti for titanium, and nol for Naval Ordnance Lab), are high-performance shape memory alloy actuator materials exhibiting strains of up to 8% by heating the SMA above its phase transformation temperature – a temperature which can be altered by changing the composition of the alloy.
If one kind of generalized force can produce a displacement other then its own conjugate, then the material has the ability to convert energy from one form to the other, and is called an active functional material. Again, crystal symmetries dictate if some of the energy conversions are allowed in a particular crystal structure. 38 3 Multifunctional Materials: The Basis for Adaptronics Fig. 6. Phenomena occurring in a ferroelectric material that can convert the three forms of energies from one to the other There are many phenomena in nature reﬂecting these energy conversion eﬀects.
Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications, Second Edition by Hartmut Janocha