By Tammo tom Dieck

This publication is a jewel– it explains vital, precious and deep issues in Algebraic Topology that you simply won`t locate in other places, rigorously and in detail."""" Prof. Günter M. Ziegler, TU Berlin

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B - ^ " 1 . (2-4) 2-3 Symmetry Operations Form a Group As stated previously, most of this book will be concerned with group theory applied to a complete set of symmetry operations. We show in this section that a complete set of symmetry operationes does in fact obey the four group postulates and thus forms a group. What is surprising is that so much detailed, fundamental, and important understanding c^n result from such a simple concept. Part of the reason for this result is that group theory is a branch of mathematics and the results are exact.

A) It has already been shown that the characters of matrices in the same class are identical. The only statement that must be added to Eq. 3-11 to complete the proof is that S is a matrix representation of any element of the group. (b) When summed over all the symmetry operations R, the character system of irreducible representations is orthogonal and normalized to the order of the group h. Namely 2 R Xi(R)*X j (R) = h ô i j 50 (4-1) CHAPTER 4 CHARACTERS OF MATRIX REPRESENTATIONS 51 This result follows from the GOT 2 R η α υ *mm rj(R) pp = (h//i> «y smp smp 2 m , p ,R TiiR) V m T j W p p = (h//i) «ij 2 m > p ômp 2 R ômp h RXi(R)*Xj( ) = ( / / i ) ô i j / i = hôij For i = j , Eq.

In general the point groups will not be Abelian, although some indeed are, such as C 2 v . b. Cyclic group If a group can be generated by repeated applications of one element, then it is called a cyclic group. For example, by repeated application of C 3 we can generate the group C 3 , C 3 2 ( = C3C3), E ( = C 3 3 ). All cyclic groups are Abelian since each element commutes with itself. Let A be the generating element for the cyclic group of order h, A h = E. Then the inverse of any element is given by Ah~~nAn = E.

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