By A. Mark Smith
Someday among 1028 and 1038, Ibn al-Haytham accomplished his huge optical synthesis, Kitab al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"). by way of no later than 1200, and maybe a little prior, this treatise seemed in Latin lower than the identify De aspectibus. In that shape it used to be attributed to a undeniable "Alhacen." those alterations in identify and authorial designation are indicative of the profound modifications among the 2 models, Arabic and Latin, of the treatise. in lots of methods, in truth, they are often seemed no longer easily as varied types of an analogous paintings, yet as various works of their personal correct. for this reason, the Arab writer, Ibn al-Haytham, and his Latin incarnation, Alhacen, characterize special, occasionally even conflicting, interpretive voices. And a similar holds for his or her respective texts. To complicate issues, "Alhacen" doesn't symbolize a unmarried interpretive voice. there have been a minimum of translators at paintings at the Latin textual content, one in every of them adhering faithfully to the Arabic unique, the opposite content material with distilling, even paraphrasing, the Arabic unique. accordingly, the Latin textual content offers now not one, yet no less than faces to the reader. quantity This two-volume severe variation represents fourteen years of labor on Dr. Smith's half. offered the 2001 J. F. Lewis Award. quantity Two--English Translation
Read Online or Download Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) PDF
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Additional resources for Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society)
And all of these points become clear with experimentation. Therefore, [when] the form of a single point on a visible objectreachesthe surface of the glacialis through refraction,[it] will not reach it at a single point but, rather,at an area on the surface of the glacialis that has some dimension. Moreover,the relativepositions of the forms of differentpoints on the surface of the visible objectthat reach the surface of the glacialis through refraction will not be the same as their actual positions on the surfaces of [those] visible objects,but reversed.
Therefore,the two forms pass from the eye through the nerve that extends between the eye and the brainuntil it reachesthe final sensor. These two forms thus pass fromthe two eyes and meet where the two nerves join. 76]And clearevidence thatthe formsof visible objectsextend through the hollow of the nerve to reachthe final sensor and that vision is achieved [only] after [their]arrivalthere is that, when there is some obstructionin this nerve, vision is destroyed,but when the obstructionis removed, vision is restored.
And since all this is true as claimed, the center of the surfaceof the glacialisand the centerof the surfaceof the eye must lie at a single point. Sight thereforecan perceive only those forms of visible objects [that reach the eye] along the straightlines whose endpoints meet at this center. And this is what, earlierin our discussion of the shape of the eye, we promised to show in this chapter,and this has now been demonstrated: i. 56] Now that this has been demonstrated,it remains for us to consider the opinion of the proponents of [visual] rays and to show what is false and what is true about that opinion.
Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) by A. Mark Smith