New PDF release: An Outline of Wave Mechanics

By Mott N.F.

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The transmission and reflection coefficients are functions of the angle of incidence and the polarization of the incident light. If θi is the incident (and reflected) angle and θt is the transmitted angle, then the electric field reflection and transmission coefficients are given by the Fresnel formulae. n1 cos(θi ) − n2 cos(θt ) 2n1 cos(θi ) ρ12⊥ = τ12⊥ = n1 cos(θi ) + n2 cos(θt ) n1 cos(θi ) + n2 cos(θt ) ρ12 = n1 cos(θt ) − n2 cos(θi ) n1 cos(θt ) + n2 cos(θi ) τ12 = 2n1 cos(θi ) n1 cos(θt ) + n2 cos(θi ) where nj = nj + iκj = the complex index of refraction of material j.

44 Optical Lithography Measuring the Dill ABC Parameters The photoresist to be measured is coated on a non-reflecting transparent substrate. The resist is then exposed by a normally incident parallel beam of light at the wavelength of measurement. At the same time, the intensity of the light transmitted through the substrate is measured continuously. The output of the experiment, transmitted intensity as a function of exposure time, is then analyzed to determine the resist ABC parameters. Note that the effectiveness of this measurement technique rests with the nonzero value of A.

Coherent illumination means simply that the light striking the mask arrives from only one direction. Generally it is assumed that coherent illumination on the mask is normally incident. The result is a diffraction pattern that is centered in the entrance to the objective lens. What would happen if we changed the direction of the illumination so that the light struck the mask at some angle θ ? The effect is simply to shift the position of the diffraction pattern with respect to the lens aperture [in terms of spatial frequency, the amount shifted is (sin θ )/λ].

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An Outline of Wave Mechanics by Mott N.F.


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