By Stephen K. Tyring
In contrast to the other resource at the topic, Antiviral brokers, Vaccines, and Immunotherapies analyzes the advantages and obstacles of each on hand drug, vaccine, and immunotherapy used in the prevention and keep an eye on of viral ailments. This reference presents in-depth experiences of greater than 50 medicinal drugs and antiviral brokers for HIV, human herpesviruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV), influenza, breathing syncytial virus, hepatitis B, and analyzes their mechanisms of motion, dosage, uncomfortable side effects, and drug resistance. The e-book additionally presents an outline of using immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies for antiviral use and offers wide references, tables, and figures in the course of the textual content.
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Additional info for Antiviral Agents, Vaccines and Immunotherapies
The structure, brand names, and approved usage are shown in Fig. 8. Abacavir is the most powerful nucleoside analogue and one of the most powerful antiretroviral drugs currently available. Its use results in reduction in viral loads and increases in CD4 counts which are unparalleled by any other nucleoside analogue and are similar to most potent PIs (100). Abacavir is normally administered as 300-mg doses twice daily although there is some indication that a 600-mg dose once daily is equally effective (101).
Patients on this regimen take two to six pills per day. Regimens listed as “alternative” in the guidelines, however, may actually be the preferred regimen for a speciﬁc patient. Antiretroviral Drugs to Treat Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus Infections 35 The panel listed 12 regimens or components that should never be offered. Several, including monotherapy and dual nucleoside therapy, had been listed as contraindicated in previous versions of the guidelines. The newly listed contraindicated regimens are a three-NRTI regimen with abacavir, tenofovir, and lamivudine (because of early virologic nonresponse); a three-NRTI regimen with didanosine, tenofovir, and lamivudine (because of a high rate of virologic failure); the combination of didanosine and stavudine (because of a high incidence of toxicities, including several deaths); the combination of atazanavir and indinavir (both of which can cause high-grade hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice); and emtricitabine plus lamivudine as a two-NRTI backbone (since both drugs have similar resistance proﬁles and minimal additive antiviral activity).
Oral ulcers developed in nine of 14 patients on days four to six of treatment. 48 Antiviral Agents Esophageal ulcers. Esophageal ulcers have also been reported in 2–4% of patients treated with ddC (86). The eruption and ulcers usually resolve with continual ddC treatment. Special Considerations Pregnancy and neonates. Pregnancy is not recommended either before or during administration of zalcitabine. The effect of zalcitabine on a developing fetus is unknown. In pigtailed macaque monkeys, administration of zalcitabine during the pregnancy did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the drug.
Antiviral Agents, Vaccines and Immunotherapies by Stephen K. Tyring