By Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin, American Society for Metals
ASM guide, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging
Provides an in-depth evaluate of a couple of techniques lately brought or that experience come into recognition similar to radial, rotary (orbital), precision, powder, and isothermal/hot-die forging. Plus superplastic sheet forming, and abrasive waterjet and laser slicing. New fabrics during this ebook (containing 1,200 illustrations and 250 tables) relates to the advance of thermomechanical processing, fairly in regards to aerospace alloys, and the advance of ideas and exams to figure out steel workability/formability relationships.
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Extra info for ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G)
Therefore, each operator must be properly trained before being allowed to operate any forging equipment. Protective equipment must be distributed and used by the operator to protect against injuries to the head, eyes, ears, feet, and body. 1. The forging machines should be equipped with the necessary controls to prevent accidental operation. This can be achieved through dual pushbutton controls and/or point-of-operation devices. Guards should be installed on all exterior moving parts to prevent accidental insertion of the hands or other extremities.
Advantages and Limitations The principal advantages of hydraulic presses include: • • Pressure can be changed as desired at any point in the stroke by adjusting the pressure control valve Deformation rate can be controlled or varied during the stroke if required. This is especially important • • • when forging metals that are susceptible to rupture at high deformation rates Split dies can be used to make parts with such features as offset flanges, projections, and backdraft, which would be difficult or impossible to incorporate into hammer forgings When excessive heat transfer from the hot workpiece to the dies is not a problem or can be eliminated, the gentle squeezing action of a hydraulic press results in lower maintenance costs and increased die life because of less shock as compared to other types of forging equipment Maximum press force can be limited to protect tooling Some of the disadvantages of hydraulic presses are: • • • The initial cost of a hydraulic press is higher than that of an equivalent mechanical press The action of a hydraulic press is slower than that of a mechanical press The slower action of a hydraulic press increases contact time between the dies and the workpiece.
In this respect, the screw press ranks between the hammer and the mechanical press. Contact times for screw presses are 20 to 30 times longer than for hammers. A similar comparison with mechanical presses cannot be made without specifying the thickness of the forged part. In forging turbine blades, which require small displacement but large loads, contact times for screw presses have been estimated to be 10 to 25% of those for mechanical presses. Variations in Screw Press Drives. In addition to direct friction and electric drives, several other types of mechanical, electric, and hydraulic drives are commonly used in screw presses.
ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G) by Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin, American Society for Metals