By Stewart J. Brown, Timothy Tackett
Through the tumultuous interval of worldwide historical past from 1660 to 1815, 3 complicated hobbies mixed to convey a basic cultural reorientation to Europe and North the US, and finally to the broader global. The Enlightenment remodeled perspectives of nature and of the human means to grasp nature. The non secular reawakenings introduced a revival of heart-felt, experiential Christianity. eventually revolution, the political and social upheavals of the overdue eighteenth and early 19th centuries, challenged confirmed principles of divine-right monarchies and divinely ordained social hierarchies, and promoted extra democratic govt, notions of human rights and non secular toleration. a brand new spiritual weather emerged, during which humans have been likely to glance to their very own emotions and studies for the root in their religion. in this similar interval, Christianity unfold extensively world wide because of colonialism and missions, and answered in varied how one can its encounters with different cultures and non secular traditions.
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Additional info for Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 7, Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660-1815
Eventually, with almost half the sees in southern Italy vacant and the French Revolution demanding his undivided attention, the pope gave way. But the locus classicus of state-sponsored reform Catholicism in the late eighteenth century was the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, a small state of about one million people, run by Maria Theresa’s son, Peter Leopold. Catholic reform was not a new current in the duchy but Peter Leopold came to see himself as an ‘external bishop’ interfering in clerical education and prescribing reading lists almost on the scale of his elder brother, the emperor Joseph II.
See S. Schama’s review of T. C. W. Blanning, Reform and revolution in Mainz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974) in the Times Literary Supplement (28 March 1975), p. 333. 7. Joseph himself was ‘certainly not a Jansenist, but a sort of Christian Stoic’: W. R. ), Religion and politics in Enlightened Europe, p. 180. See Derek Beales, Joseph II, vol. 1: In the shadow of Maria Theresa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 192, for the emperor’s sense of the divine voice speaking within him.
The Gallican church was, to all intents and purposes, a royal church, the model of a church–state polity to which every lesser Catholic monarch aspired. Despite possessing formidable structures of self-government (the quinquennial General Assembly of the Clergy was the most prestigious) and being exempted from direct taxation (it offered its own ‘free gift’, set at a rate and incidence of its choosing), the church was a dependent institution that looked to the monarchy for protection. It was not always forthcoming, but the majority of bishops and priests rarely faltered in their loyalty, even when the Gallican Articles of 1682 were discarded in favour of using the pope as an instrument to obtain the royal policy objective of crushing Jansenism.
Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 7, Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660-1815 by Stewart J. Brown, Timothy Tackett