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3. 4. 5. 6. The crowns of the lower molars are oblong, being broader mesiodistally than buccolingually. The fissure pattern is cross-shaped. The lingual cusps are of more equal size. The tips of the buccal cusps are shifted lingually so that, from the occlusal view, the whole of the buccal surface is visible. Mandibular first permanent molar The crown of this tooth, when viewed occlusally, is somewhat pentagonal in outline (Fig. 37). It is broader mesiodistally than buccolingually. The occlusal surface is divided into buccal and lingual parts by a mesiodistal occlusal fissure, which arises from a deep central fossa.

Thus, the mandibular first premolar differs from other premolars in that the occlusal plane does not lie perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth but is inclined lingually. The tilt of the occlusal plane can also be appreciated from the mesial and distal aspects. The cervical line follows an almost level course around the tooth. The root is single, conical, and oval to nearly round in cross-section. The root is grooved longitudinally both mesially and distally, the mesial groove being the more prominent.

Mesially and distally, the buccal and lingual aspects converge towards the midline of the crown. The mesial marginal ridge is more prominent than the distal marginal ridge. Note the bulge associated with the buccal cingulum near the cervical margin of the mesiobuccal cusp. The mandibular first deciduous molar has two divergent roots, mesial and distal, which are flattened mesiodistally. The mesial root is often grooved. Mandibular second deciduous molar Fig. 41 Mandibular first right deciduous molar.

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