By Heinrich Zollinger
Who's no longer attracted, involved or maybe surprised by means of the realm of colours? firstly there are the painters after all, but in addition biologists and mineralogists have an interest in shades of the dwelling and the inorganic, 'dead', global. There are neuroscientists, psychologists and ophthalmologists, who examine the feeling of colour imaginative and prescient and the processing of colour stimuli within the eye and the mind. Physicists and chemists examine colour technological know-how, i.e. some of the explanations of colour. inside designers know the way the colours of furnishings and textiles can effect our situation. In all cultures, colours play a primary function because of their symbolic content material. All Languages have specified phrases to explain colours and colorfulness. visible artists play with colours to mirror the area, probably to alienate it, and to provide us an idea in their own viewpoint. Many different examples of the effect of colours on our lifestyle, our tradition should be found... The 'exact' technology can't comprehend colour phenomena. This quite attention-grabbing e-book, written in a mode that's comprehensible for an layman, offers with all of the various aspects of this topic.
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Extra info for Color: a multidisciplinary approach
M = micrometer = 10–6 m; nm = nanometer = 10–9 m. 2 nm. 17. Colors mentioned are those seen viewing the feather perpendicularly. 18. K. Nassau, ‘The Fifteen Causes of Color’, Color Research and Application 1987, 12 (1), 4–26. 19. H. F. Nijhout, ‘The Color Patterns of Butterflies and Moths’, Scientific American 1981, 245, 104–115. 20. K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color, The Fifteen Causes of Color, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983. 39 Chemistry of Color 3. 1. History of Colorants The term ‘colorants’ embraces all colored compounds, irrespective of their origin and utility for coloration or other purposes.
A) Structure of vanes on the surface of scales on the wings of the butterfly M. rhetenor. B) Multiple interference produced by the ridge on these vanes (Fig. reproduced from Ref. 5. How Many Causes of Color Do We Know? We have discussed three instances of color arising out of diverse physical phenomena: refraction in a glass prism, combined refraction and reflection in a rainbow’s water droplets,and concerted refraction,reflection,and interference in peacock feathers. Many other causes of color formation, both in nature and in the laboratory, are known, produced by either physical or chemical processes.
Orgel calculated that a relatively small decrease in the Cr–O distance should change the color of Cr2O3 from green to red. It is not unreasonable to assume that this is the case in ruby, because the aluminum ion (the Al3+ cation) is significantly smaller than the chromium ion (Cr3+). Hence, the relatively few chromium trioxide molecules can only be accommodated in the Al2O3 matrix by ‘squeezing’ them into it, shrinking the Cr–O distance. Larger percentages of Cr2O3, however, can no longer be constricted by the pressure,and so the mixed crystal reverts to green under these conditions.
Color: a multidisciplinary approach by Heinrich Zollinger