By Asoke K. Talukder
The convergence of 2 robust technologies—wireless and the Internet—through IPv4/v6 protocol has resulted in emergence of next-generation networks (NGNs). NGN is not any extra a community of mere pcs yet a attached conglomeration of various networks with various actual houses, with a plethora of community parts, besides numerous real-time multimedia purposes. This booklet covers the complete gamut of know-how demanding situations from actual layer to software layer together with safety from either educational and business views.
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Additional info for Convergence Through All-IP Networks
A multicast address is identified by its FP of 1111 1111 (FF in hexadecimal). It is formed according to several specific formatting rules depending on the applications. In general a multicast address has the format as shown in Fig. 15. 15 Multicast address format. 4 112 Scope Group ID The fields in a multicast address are described as follows: • The Prefix field holds the binary value 1111 1111 (FF in hexadecimal) for any multicast address. • The Flags field indicates the flags that are set on the multicast address.
The Flags field indicates the flags that are set on the multicast address. Currently, three of four flag bits are defined. The most significant bit is reserved for future use. • Flag bits: O R P T • O = Reserved for future use • T = 0, permanent addresses managed by the IANA • T = 1, transient multicast addresses • P = 1, derived from unicast prefix • R = 1, embedded rendezvous point addresses • The scope field indicates the scope of the internetwork for which the multicast is intended. In addition to the information provided by the multicast routing protocols, routers use the multicast scope to determine whether the multicast traffic can be forwarded.
Link-local address and duplicate address detection: The link-local network prefix is fixed according to the IPv6 address architecture; so once an interface ID is generated, the host can autoconfigure its link-local address by appending the interface ID to a predefined FE80::/64 prefix. Leveraging our previous example using the MAC address of AC-62-E8-49-5F-62 and the resulting interface ID of AE62:E8FF:FE49:5F62, the link-local address would be FE80::AE62:E8FF:FE49:5F62. Duplicate-address detection is performed through a process called neighbor discovery, which entails the device sending an IPv6 NS packet to the IP address it just derived in order to identify a pre-existing occupant of the IP address.
Convergence Through All-IP Networks by Asoke K. Talukder