By Bruce J. Berne
This accomplished creation to ideas underlying laser gentle scattering makes a speciality of time dependence of fluctuations in fluid structures. It additionally serves as creation to conception of time correlation capabilities, with chapters on projection operator recommendations in statistical mechanics. Over 60 textual content figures. 1976 version.
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Additional info for Dynamic Light Scattering: With Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics
The irradiance distributions in two observation planes located at z = R ± Δ are not identical. There are three reasons for this asymmetry (Mahajan [1983b, 1994, 2004]). First, the inverse square law dependence on z increases I (z) for z < R and decreases it for z > R. Second, Bd is asymmetric. Third, the argument of the Bessel function J0 (·) depends on z. For small Fresnel numbers, all three factors contribute to the asymmetry. The defocus aberration reduces the central irradiance, but the inverse-square dependence on z increases it for z < R.
Hence it is asymmetric about the Gaussian image plane for small Fresnel numbers and symmetric for large ones, just like the PSF. For small Fresnel numbers, the cutoff frequency is vc = D/(λz) instead of D/(λR), as may be seen from eqs. 6) by replacing R with z. Figure 14 shows the defocused OTF corresponding to the PSFs considered in fig. 8. As the amount of defocus increases, the OTF becomes negative in the low-frequency region, representing reversal of image contrast, and nearly zero in the high-frequency region.
9. Continued. It lies closer and closer to the pupil as γ increases. However, the secondary maxima are higher for the Gaussian beam. Moreover, the axial minima for the uniform beam have a value of zero at z values given by Bd = 2πn or z/R = (1+2n/N )−1 , where n is a nonzero positive or a negative integer. For example, when N = 1, the minima are located at z/R = 1/3, 1/5, 1/7, . . , and there is no minimum for z < R. 2, the even number of Fresnel zones that the pupil subtends at these locations cancel out each other to yield a zero irradiance.
Dynamic Light Scattering: With Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics by Bruce J. Berne