Download e-book for iPad: Early metallurgy in the persian gulf by Lloyd R. Weeks

By Lloyd R. Weeks

ISBN-10: 0391042130

ISBN-13: 9780391042131

Важная книга для металообработвания в Древнем Персийском заливе.

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1986:127). The copper, iron and zinc-rich ores are exhalative sedimentary deposits formed either in sea-floor depressions near oceanic ridges or as a result of sea-mount volcanism (Ixer et al. 1984:123; Hauptmann 1985:27). The ore metals themselves originated in the volcanic rocks, from which they were mobilized by hydrothermal seawater solutions (Jankovic, 1986:27; Hauptmann 1985:27). The massive sulfide deposits are comprised primarily of pyrite (FeS2),chalcopyrite (CuFeS2),and sphalerite (ZnS), but exhibit well-developed gossans consisting of brightly colored iron oxides, hydroxides and sulfates in 12 Early Metallurgy of the Persian Gulf addition to secondary copper minerals such as malachite ( C U ~ C O , ( O H ) azurite ~), ( C U ~ ( C O ~ ) ~ ( and O H rare )~) native copper (Coleman 1977:125; Ixer et al.

It followed that, during the third millennium, at least some copper used in Mesopotamia was obtained from Oman (Peake 1928). While recent research has indeed indicated that this conclusion is true, the metallurgical bases of the arguments used in the Antiquity article are in fact erroneous. Modern geological and archaeological research indicates that nickel occurs in many copper deposits of western Asia (Cheng and Schwitter 1957:351; Muhly 1973a:229), and therefore high nickel levels in archaeological objects cannot be used to suggest that early Mesopotamian copper came from the relatively nickel-rich deposits of Oman.

With fieldwork by the German mission continuing into the 1990s, the likelihood of incomplete survey as an explanation for the dearth of Wadi Suq-related smelting sites is quickly diminishing (cf. Weisgerber 1988:285). Likewise, the discovery of Bronze Age and Iron Age smelting remains amongst extensive early Islamic operations at numerous sites suggests that the second factor is unlikely to have completely compromised the search for second millennium smelting remains. With regard to the third possibility, Velde (2003:109) has suggested that the "scanty knowledge" of second millennium material culture at the time the German surveys were undertaken may have affected the recognition of Wadi Suq Period smelting sites.

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Early metallurgy in the persian gulf by Lloyd R. Weeks


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