By C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy
Gupta and Krishnamurthy survey the clinical and engineering literature to supply an summary of present practices for extracting infrequent earths and getting ready their derivatives for particular purposes. They establish the site, caliber, and volume of the world's infrequent earth assets and current a close account of classical and smooth extraction equipment. Chemical and electrochemical relief equipment also are lined, in addition to steel refining options. The authors are affiliated with the Bhabha Atomic study middle in Mumbai, India.
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Additional resources for Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths
Even though the lanthanum atom and its tripositive ion are considerably larger in size than the corresponding yttrium species, the magnitude of lanthanide contraction is so much that the radii of the lanthanide species decrease to those of the yttrium species in the general holmium-erbium region. The similarity in the outermost electronic arrangement and the similarity in size due to lanthanide contraction explains the occurrence of yttrium in association with the heavier lanthanides. For essentially the same reason, it will be seen later that (i) yttrium compounds always concentrate with those of the heavier lanthanide elements in almost all fractionation procedures for the rare earths separation, (ii) considerable difficulty is experienced in separating yttrium from the heavier lanthanides, and (iii) yttrium exhibits general similarities in solubility, crystal structure, and in overall chemical properties with the heavier lanthanide metals.
The rare earth oxides, sulfides, fluorides, carbonates, oxalates, and phosphates are insoluble in water. Among the halides only the fluorides are insoluble. The addition of hydrofluoric acid or fluoride ions to RE3+ solutions even in 3M nitric acid results in the precipitation of REF3. This is a characteristic test for rare earth ions. Rare earths can also be precipitated as oxalates, another insoluble rare earth compound, from a dilute nitric acid solution. The The rare earths 25 precipitation is not only quantitative, but also specific to rare earths and is used for the determination of rare earths gravimetrically.
Rare earth hydroxides are definite compounds and are not just hydrous oxides. As mentioned earlier, La(OH)3 is the most basic of the rare earth hydroxides and the basicity decreases across the series with increase in the atomic number. and Rare earth salts containing thermally unstable anions such as OH−, when heated, yield first the basic derivatives and finally the oxides. The hydrated salts, regardless of the nature of the anion, undergo thermal hydrolysis at high temperatures. Anhydrous compounds of rare earths containing thermally stable anions such as O2−, F−, Cl−, and Br− melt without decomposition at relatively high temperatures.
Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths by C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy