By Brian Porter-Szucs
Jesus steered his fans to "love your enemies, do stable to people who hate you, bless those that curse you, pray if you mistreat you" (Luke 6:27-28). not just has this subject matter lengthy been one of the Church's such a lot oft-repeated messages, yet in every little thing from sermons to articles within the Catholic press, it's been regularly emphasised that the commandment extends to all humanity. but, on a variety of events within the 20th century, Catholics have validated alliances with nationalist teams selling ethnic exclusivity, anti-Semitism, and using any potential worthwhile in an imagined "struggle for survival." whereas a few could describe this as mere hypocrisy, religion and place of origin analyzes how Catholicism and nationalism were combined jointly in Poland, from Nazi career and Communist rule to the election of Pope John Paul II and past. it's always taken with no consideration that Poland is a Catholic kingdom, yet in reality the country's obvious homogeneity is a comparatively fresh improvement, supported as a lot by means of ideology as demography. to totally contextualize the fusion among religion and place of origin, Brian Porter-cs-concepts like sin, the Church, the kingdom, and the Virgin Mary-ultimately displaying how those principles have been assembled to create a strong yet hotly contested type of non secular nationalism. on no account was once this end result inevitable, and it definitely didn't represent the one method of being Catholic in sleek Poland. still, the Church's ongoing fight to discover a spot inside of an more and more secular ecu modernity made this ideological formation attainable and gave many Poles a vocabulary for social feedback that helped make experience of grievances and injustices.
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Additional info for Faith and Fatherland: Catholicism, Modernity, and Poland
The difference between [Catholicism] and Protestantism is that in Protestantism the relationship of man to God and to his own conscience is measured individually and subjectively, whereas in Catholicism it is collective and subordinate to the authorities solely designated to decide such matters. 30 For Gnatowski the Church was much more than a moral watchdog, much more than a guarantor of social order, more even than a distributor of sacraments (though all these were important). The Catholic Church was the living representation of God’s will on earth, so from Gnatowski’s perspective, Szech was not merely criticizing the clergy, he was denying ecclesiology as such by seeing in the Church only a sociological, political, and devotional community, only an institutional hierarchy made by humans to serve humanity.
In his view the people of God might constitute the Church, but only insofar as they were properly subordinated to the established clerical authorities. . ”70 Even more striking than Wyszyński’s characterization of the laity as “children” was a subtle slip: he spoke of the laity “cooperating with the Church” (z Kościołem), whereas those calling for more participation by the laity spoke of their presence in the Church (w Kościele). Wyszyński’s attitude was widespread among the clergy. In 1966 the theologian Tadeusz Żychiewicz (better known by the pseudonym he used in his regular advice column, “Poczta Ojca Malachiasza” [The Mailbox of Father Malachi]) organized an informal survey by asking readers to comment on the relationship between the laity and the clergy in their parishes.
12 Already in Puzyna’s day, however, there were many Catholics unwilling to make the leap from an unqualified but abstract belief in the Church to a specific faith in the clergy. In 1903 Bishop Leon Wałęga of Tarnów expressed his bewilderment at the lack of discipline among his flock. ” Unfortunately, he continued, the people of his diocese did not meet my expectations and hopes . . There have been cases when my warnings and advice have not been taken, when my words have been misrepresented, and when some even openly refused obedience to me.
Faith and Fatherland: Catholicism, Modernity, and Poland by Brian Porter-Szucs