By Raisa Maria Toivo
While early smooth Finland was once Lutheran in thought, a spiritual plurality – embodied in ceremonies and rituals and interpreted as magic – flourished. Unorthodox and superstitious practices merged with catechism hearings and sermon preaching one of the laity. This e-book info how western and japanese affects manifested themselves in Finnish magic.
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Additional resources for Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland
Laasonen maintains that this was a necessity for the populace, but the clergy nevertheless seems to have consciously taken part in this conservatism. 37 Lay Teaching and the Toleration of Superstition and Magic The architects of the Reformation had already pronounced that every lay person should be able to not only read the Bible but also to understand its contents. For this reason, catechism teaching and sermon preaching were important elements to be developed. In Finland, the importance of sermons was greatly enhanced at the beginning of the 36 Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland seventeenth century when Ericus Erici Sorolainen published the first model sermon collection, the Postilla, in two volumes between 1622 and 1624.
Conversely, as Sweden’s military efforts were largely funded by French loans, there was reason not to adopt any radical Protestant Lutheranism and the Development of Superstition 31 rhetoric. In the middle of the century, as the peace of the Thirty Years War ended, there was a need to steer clear of the fractions between different Protestantisms, so the trend once again turned further away from radical Protestantism, and Calvinism with it. 20 The course open to the Swedish Church was a strict and compulsory orthodox Lutheranism, a form of confessionalism only slightly moderated by the Calvinist upbringing and education of Charles X.
The bishop advocated reverence and showing honour to God in pious gestures and ceremonies. For him, the ceremonies had been removed from the services for the purpose of fighting Catholicism; nevertheless, there was no reason to approach Calvinism either. Therefore, the ceremonies could be allowed as a matter of choice. 58 Nevertheless, Gezelius also warned against ‘papists’ when he listed some things that were definitely wrong. 60 When misuses of the sacrament come up in relation to magic, they most often pointed in the Catholic direction and the belief in full transubstantiation: if the bread was the body of Christ, it was also an object with an enormous supernatural power in itself, independent of other rituals and actors.
Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland by Raisa Maria Toivo