By Julie Bentley
The method of designing lenses is either an artwork and a technology. whereas developments within the box over the last centuries have performed a lot to rework it from the previous class to the latter, a lot of the lens layout approach continues to be encapsulated within the event and data of veterans. This SPIE box advisor offers a operating reference for training physicists, engineers, and scientists for interpreting the nuances of uncomplicated lens layout.
The e-book starts off with an overview of the overall approach ahead of delving into aberrations, simple lens layout varieties, and optimization. a complete part is dedicated to strategies for making improvements to lens functionality. Sections on tolerancing, stray mild, and optical structures are by way of an appendix protecting comparable subject matters akin to optical fabrics, nonimaging thoughts, designing for sampled imaging, and ray tracing fundamentals.
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Extra resources for Field guide to lens design
The outer two elements are positive crowns, and the middle element is a negative flint with the aperture stop located on either side of the middle element. The symmetry of the design helps control coma, distortion, and lateral color. Because it is only corrected to third order, the Cooke triplet is limited by higher-order aberrations and is thus capable of relatively slow apertures (∼ f /6) and moderate fields (10–15 deg). Up to 50% vignetting may be needed in systems with larger fields. The Cooke triplet is the most basic form of an anastigmat lens.
For example, the Schmidt–Cassegrain and Maksutov–Cassegrain are common commercial telescopes for amateur astronomy that combine the corrector optics with a Cassegrain system. org/terms 42 Design Forms Unobscured Systems: Aperture Clearance One method to eliminate the obscuration in a reflective system involves shifting the on-axis beam so that it is no longer centered on the optical axis (usually at the expense of increased package size). For example, in an off-axis parabola (OAP), the aperture stop is simply decentered until the image is clear of the beam.
This type of design is also the preferred form for many spectrometers, where the secondary mirror is replaced by a reflective grating. org/terms 44 Design Forms Three-Mirror Anastigmat The Cassegrain telescope is a promising design form, as it can fit a long focal length in a short package while balancing Petzval with a positive mirror and a negative mirror. However, similar to many two-mirror design forms, the field coverage of a Cassegrain is limited to ∼1 deg by astigmatism. Adding a third mirror to a Cassegrain provides the degrees of freedom necessary to correct the astigmatism across the field.
Field guide to lens design by Julie Bentley