By Julian Szekely
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Additional info for Fluid Flow Phenomena in Metals Processing
Using the previously defined symbols, Eq. 5) Certain comments may be helpful at this stage. The mechanical energy balance equation is written in terms of scalar quantities, because energy is a scalar; moreover, Eq. 5) is a balance written on the energy content of the control volume as a whole. , a cooling water circuit. While the terms appearing in Eq. 5) are scalars, care has to be taken regarding the sign of these quantities. When the system is at steady state, the left-hand side ofEq. 5) vanishes and under these conditions it is convenient to recast Eq.
The strongly nonlinear composition dependence of viscosity is readily seen from Eqs. 7). The use of these formulas is illustrated by the following example. 1 Estimate the viscosity of a gas mixture containing 20% zinc vapor, 50% nitrogen, and 20% hydrogen, at 1000°C and 1 atm pressure. SOLUTION From Eq. 86 3297 x 10- 6 Zn N2 CO - Using Eq. 6 X 10- 5 kg/rn s Our understanding of the liquid state is much less complete than that of gases; for this reason the methods available for predicting the viscosities of liquids are usually not very reliable.
17. E. , "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel," 8th ed. S. Steel Corp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1972. 18. R. D. Pehlke, W. F. Porter, R. F. Urban, and J. M. " The Iron and Steel Society of AIME, New York, 1977. 19. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. " Wiley, New York, 1960. 20. R. H. , pp. 3-197. McGraw-Hill, New York,1963. 21. J. M. Toguri, N. J. Themelis, and P. H. Jennings, Can. Metall. Q. 3, 197 (1964). 1 Introduction In the previous chapter we introduced the reader to some of the basic concepts that are used for characterizing moving fluids, such as the viscosity, the stress tensor, and the relationship between viscosity and the velocity gradient.
Fluid Flow Phenomena in Metals Processing by Julian Szekely