By David A. Frank
Harvard clinical university, Boston, MA. textual content explores cellphone sign transduction pathways of specific value to human melanoma. Emphasis is put on receptors on the phone floor, intracellular signaling cascades, transcription components functioning within the nucleus, and pathways triggering courses of cellphone loss of life.
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Additional resources for Frank Signal Transduction in Cancer
Insulin regulates metabolic functions primarily by affecting cells in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues (Kahn, 1985). In contrast, IGF-I and -II modulate the growth and differentiation of cells in almost every tissue in the body (Daughaday & Rotwein, 1989). , 1997; Furlanetto, Harwell, & Frick, 1994). , 1997; Parrizas & LeRoith, 1997; Wang, Ma, Markovich, Lee, & Wang, 1998). IGF-II also has mitogenic and antiapoptotic activities and regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. The IGF receptors include insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II receptors.
1994). Hepatocellular carcinomas, lymphomas, squamous cell carcinomas, sarcomas, and thyroid carcinomas were observed in the transgenic mice. The authors speculated that given the long latency period and the variety of tumor types, IGF-II may promote tumor progression by both autocrine and endocrine stimulation. , 1997). The IGF-I-R has a variety of functions that are important in the development of human cancers. It has been shown to mediate cellular proliferation in vivo and in vitro, to establish and maintain the transformed phenotype, and to protect cells from apoptosis (Rubin & Baserga, 1995).
Quiescent cells are initially advanced into the phase under the influence of competence factors and then become committed to DNA synthesis (S phase) by progression factors (Pledger, Stiles, Antoniades, & Scher, 1977). The stimulatory effects of growth factors must be present throughout this transitional process, which takes several hours, and if the signal is disrupted before the cell becomes committed to DNA synthesis, the cell will retreat to the phase (Figure 2). At a critical point in the cell cycle, the restriction point, the cell is committed to progress into the S phase (Pardee, 1989).
Frank Signal Transduction in Cancer by David A. Frank