By Fritz Riehle
Riehle (optics, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) describes the crucial tools and methods appropriate to frequency criteria built in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and records. He first reports easy techniques of frequency criteria from the microwave to the optical point, then discusses the belief of popular elements, delivering useful examples. He describes an important frequency criteria, akin to the rubidium clock, and offers a variety of purposes of frequency criteria in high-technology parts.
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Extra info for Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications
Consequently, the length of the phasor resulting from all three phasors and describing the harmonically modulated oscillation is also changed periodically (Fig. 3). The power contained in the harmonically amplitude modulated oscillation is proportional to the amplitude squared (cf. footnote 1 on page 12) which in the case of a complex amplitude 4 The phrase “band” refers to the more common case of amplitude modulation with a band of frequencies. 5 In our case the phasor of the carrier is depicted on the real axis.
2 Oscillator with Feedback From the results of the previous section it follows that any amplitude and phase modulation has to be kept at a minimum in an oscillator to be used for a frequency standard. The keep the amplitude of an oscillator constant the power extracted from or dissipated by the oscillator has to be compensated for. The compensation can be achieved by splitting off a fraction of the emitted power which is ampliﬁed and fed back to the oscillator with the proper phase (Fig. 11 a).
Despite the peculiar gain curve (Fig. 19) of such an element where the output voltage is saturated at the smallest input voltage, the operational ampliﬁer is a very useful device if used with external feedback circuitry. To describe the behaviour of an operational ampliﬁer with feedback, two “golden rules” of the operational ampliﬁer can be applied  as follows. I. The output voltage of the operational ampliﬁer is always such that the voltage difference between the two inputs is zero. II. The input currents are very low (zero).
Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications by Fritz Riehle