By Francis Jenkins, Harvey White
Jenkins F.A., White H.E., Jenkins F., White H. basics of Optics (MGH technology Engineering Math, 2001)(ISBN 0072561912)(766s)
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of optics
1E. Three media of length d, d', and d", with refractive indices n, n', and n", respectively, are shown touching each other. Line AB shows the length of the actual light path through these media, while the line CD shows the distance A, the distance light would travel in a vacuum in the same amount of time t. 1. 1. ( D FIGURE IE The optical path through a series of optical media. 6 LAWS OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Whenever a ray of light is incident on the boundary separating two different media, part of the ray is reflected back into the first medium and the remainder is refracted (bent in its path) as it enters the second medium (see Fig.
A ~m) (2k) 32 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICS The most accurate measurements of refractive index are made by placing the sample in the form of a prism on the table of a spectrometer and measuring the angles (jm and IX, the former for each color desired. When prisms are used in spectroscopes and spectrographs, they are always set as nearly as possible at minimum deviation because otherwise any slight divergence or convergence of the incident light would cause astigmatism in the image. 6 THIN PRISMS The equations for the prism become much simpler when the refracting angle IX becomes small enough to ensure that its sine and the sine of the angle of deviation (j may be set equal to the angles themselves.
2F) parallel to the refracting edge, the angle of deviation ~ will be observed to decrease, reach a minimum, and then increase again, as shown in Fig. 2G. The smallest deviation angle, called the angle of minimum deviation <5m,occurs at that particular angle of incidence where the refracted ray inside the prism makes equal angles with the two prism faces (see Fig. 2H). In this special case 4>2 4>~ = 4>2 P = '}' (2j) To prove these angles equal, assume 4>1 does not equal cP2 when minimum cP1 = deviation occurs.
Fundamentals of optics by Francis Jenkins, Harvey White