By Alexander Spirkin
The booklet bargains a scientific exposition of the principles of dialectical and old materialism. It starts off with deliberations at the nature of philosophical wisdom, the position of worldview, and the aim of method. there's additionally a quick excursus into the historical past of philosophy. hoping on a wealth of theoretical and useful fabrics, the writer supplies an all-sided research of such primary strategies as being and awareness, subject and movement, cognition and task; step-by-step, he identifies the most rules, legislation and different types of dialectics, and heavily experiences the socioeconomic, political and cultural features of society's existence opposed to the history of the worldwide difficulties of contemporary instances. The publication indicates conclusively constant medical philosophy didn't enhance as a mechanical accumulation of formerly came across grains of the reality yet via their severe research and artistic elaboration less than the altering ancient conditions.
The publication was once provided a prize at a contest of textbooks for college students of upper academic establishments.
A.G. Spirkin (1918-2004), Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is a well known Soviet thinker and psychologist.
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Philosophy
Bacon believed that the true connection between things lay in natural causality. However, it is important to note Bacon's "theological inconsistency": while proclaiming materialist principles, Bacon permitted 48 the existence of God, and gave a largely idealist interpretation of the laws of social life. Bacon's materialism was further developed and defended by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (15881679). According to Hobbes, matter is eternal but individual bodies are temporary. H e saw the motion of matter as the movement of bodies in space, that is to say, as mechanical motion, and he viewed not only all natu ral bodies but also man and society as mechanisms.
The thinkers of ancient China counted wood and metal besides earth, water and fire among the basic elements. Owing to a complex intertwining of mythological and spontaneously materialist tendencies at the early stage of the formation of philosophical concepts, human thought did not know, until a certain moment (marked in E u r o p e by the emergence of the philosophy of Socrates), a clearcut distinction between materialism and idealism. At this stage, it was merely a question of prevailing tendencies, materialist or idealist.
It reduces things to sensations and sensations to things. But any biophysicist will explain that greenness or blueness are sensations reflecting the visible spectrum of electromagnetic oscillations of definite frequences and wavelengths, and that in themselves the waves are neither green nor blue. The subjective form in which the object is given us must therefore be distinguished from the objective source existing by itself, and this is exactly what a scientific materialist does. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Vol.
Fundamentals of Philosophy by Alexander Spirkin