By Hartwell L. et al.
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Extra info for Genetics. From Genes to Genomes
Note that the law of segregation makes a clear distinction between organisms, whose cells have two copies of each gene, and gametes, which bear only a single copy of each gene. 11 shows a simple way of visualizing the results of the segregation and random union of alleles during gamete formation and fertilization. Mendel invented a system of symbols that allowed him to analyze all his crosses in the same way. He designated dominant alleles with a capital A, B, or C and recessive ones with a lowercase a, b, or c.
The F1 generation hybrids carried one dominant and one recessive allele for the trait. Individuals having two different alleles for a single trait are monohybrids. 2 Genetic Analysis According to Mendel starch molecules, which allow the peas to maintain a rounded shape. In contrast, the enzyme determined by the recessive r allele is abnormal and does not function effectively. In homozygous recessive rr peas, sucrose builds up because less of it is converted into starch. The excess sucrose modiﬁes osmotic pressure, causing water to enter the young seeds.
Some children, however, look unlike any of the assembled relatives and more like a great, great grandparent. What causes the similarities and differences of appearance and the skipping of generations? The answers lie in our genes, the basic units of biological information, and in heredity, the way genes transmit physiological, anatomical, and behavioral traits from parents to offspring. Each of us starts out as a single fertilized egg cell that develops, by division and differentiation, into a mature adult made up of 1014 (a hundred trillion) specialized cells capable of carryCHAPTER OUTLINE ing out all the body’s functions and controlling our outward appearance.
Genetics. From Genes to Genomes by Hartwell L. et al.