By David A. Hopwood
This article offers with the genetics and molecular biology of different micro organism, which perform clinical, clinical, agricultural and biotechnological actions. Taking genetic variety as its subject, it illustrates phenomena comparable to genetic platforms controlling pathogenicity, symbiosis, chemotaxis, metabolic features, and differentiation
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This article offers with the genetics and molecular biology of alternative micro organism, which perform medical, scientific, agricultural and biotechnological actions. Taking genetic variety as its subject, it illustrates phenomena similar to genetic platforms controlling pathogenicity, symbiosis, chemotaxis, metabolic features, and differentiation
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Subtilis S. coelicolor B. subtilis E. coli C. crescentus E. coli S. coelicolor SPOlAß. 0\/B. subtilis T 4 / £ . coli Housekeeping genes b Housekeeping genes b Housekeeping genes c H e a t shock genes b Unknown0 Several catabolicgenes (endoH, dagAp3)c,d Unknownb Sporulation genes b Sporulation g e n e s b e Sporulation genes b Sporulation genes f Motility genes b Motilitygenes b Motility genes g Nitrogen regulated genes b Agarase (dagAp2)d Phage middle genes b Phagelategenesb Phage late genes b a N u m b e r s indicate the spacing between the —35, — 10 a n d 4-1 regions.
600 kb in Chlamydia trachomatis, a nutritionally demanding obligate parasite, to ca. 13 000 kb for the cyanobacterium Calothrix (1). However, most bacterial genomes probably fall within a factor of two of the size of the E. coli chromosome, most accurately determined as 4500 kb with the emergence of the technique of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for separating very large DNA fragments (2). B. Gross G e n o m e Organization and its Slow Change D u r i n g Prokaryote Evolution In those bacteria in which enough genetic mapping has been done, all the genes needed for normal growth and development are linked to each other, implying a single chromosome.
Subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA uptake is sequence-independent (although its recombination into the chromosome depends on sequence homology). However in the Gram-negative Haemophilus influenzae, a special sequence (5' A A G T G C G G T C A 3') must be recognized for DNA to be incorporated (67). Such a sequence serves to tag DNA as self because it occurs some 600 times on the H. influenzae chromosome, whereas its chance occurrence would be only about once per bacterial genome. Apart from its use in fine linkage analysis, natural transformation is particularly valuable for other genetic studies.
Genetics of Bacterial Diversity by David A. Hopwood