# New PDF release: Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry by vector methods By A. H Copeland

Книга Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry via vector tools Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry by way of vector equipment Книги Математика Автор: A. H Copeland Год издания: 1962 Формат: djvu Издат.:MacMillan Страниц: 298 Размер: 2,2 ISBN: B0007DPOVU Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry by way of vector methodsMb

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Extra resources for Geometry, algebra, and trigonometry by vector methods

Example text

2 implies that for codimension q = 4k − 2 ≥ 6, in order to continuously vary the value of a variable class hI ⊗ pJ it is necessary to deform the underlying foliation. For q = 4k − 1, the value of variable class may (possibly) be continuously varied by simply changing the transverse metric for the foliation. We illustrate this with two examples. 1 (Chern-Simons, Example 2 in §69 ). Consider S3 the Lie group SU(2) with Lie algebra spanned by X= as 0 −1 0i i 0 ,Z = ,Y = 1 0 i0 0 −i which gives a framing s of T S3 .

We discuss some known results in the following. First, consider the role of the section s : M → P . Given any smooth map ϕ : M → SO(q), we obtain a new framing s = s · ϕ : M → P by setting s (x) = s(x) · ϕ(x). Thus, ϕ can be thought of as a gauge transformation of the normal bundle Q → M . The cohomology of the Lie algebra so(q) is isomorphic to an exterior algebra, generated by the cohomology classes of left-invariant closed forms τj ∈ Λ4j−1 (so(q)) for j < q/2, and the Euler form χm ∈ Λ2m−1 (so(q)) when q = 2m.

Let (F, gt , st ) be a smooth 1-parameter family, where F is a fixed foliation of codimension q, each gt is a holonomy invariant Riemannian metric on Q, and st is a smooth family of framings on Q. Let hI ⊗ pJ ∈ RWq satisfy deg(pi1 ∧ pJ ) > q + 1. Then ∆sF0,g0 [hI ⊗ pJ ] = ∆sF1,g1 [hI ⊗ pJ ] ∈ H ∗ (M ; R) We say that these classes are metric rigid. Thus, the classes [hI ⊗ pJ ] ∈ H ∗ (RWq ) are metric rigid when deg(hi1 ⊗ pJ ) > q, and rigid under all deformations when deg(hi1 ⊗ pJ ) > q + 1. A closed monomial hI ⊗ pJ which is not rigid, is said to be variable. 