By Martyn T Cobourne; Andrew T DiBiase
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Additional info for Handbook of orthodontics
At the future head end of the human embryo, the neural tube is segmented into three vesicles, which will form: ● Forebrain; ● Midbrain; and ● Hindbrain. On the lateral side of the head are the pharyngeal arches, which form: ● Neck; ● Pharynx; and ● Jaws. In the upper region of the head is the frontonasal process, which surrounds the early forebrain and will form: ● The upper face. 4 Derivatives of neural crest cells. Redrawn from Larsen WJ (1998). Essentials of Human Embryology (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone).
Sutures play an important role during postnatal growth of the skull and any form of premature fusion in these joints can lead to craniosynostosis (see Fig. 18). The cranial base (chondrocranium) The cranial base is formed from a series of individual cartilages that lie between the early brain capsule and foregut, and begin to appear in the sixth week of development (Fig. 13). These cartilages form part of the primary cartilaginous skeleton within the embryo and extend from the cranial end of the notochord to the nasal capsule; both in the midline and more laterally.
Neural crest cells migrate from their point of origin adjacent to the neural tube into the pharyngeal arches and express different combinations of Hox genes according to their axial origin. This migration is specific, neural crest destined for the first pharyngeal arch migrates from rhombomeres 1 and 2 (with a small contribution of crest from the midbrain region), whilst neural crest for the second and third pharyngeal arches migrates from rhombomeres 3 and 4 and 5 and 6, respectively. Rhombomeres 2, 4, 6 and 7 contain the exit points for cranial nerves V, VII, IX and X; these nerves will innervate structures derived from pharyngeal arches 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.
Handbook of orthodontics by Martyn T Cobourne; Andrew T DiBiase