Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points - download pdf or read online

By Jerzy Jezierski

ISBN-10: 1402039301

ISBN-13: 9781402039300

The concept of a ?xed element performs a very important position in several branches of mat- maticsand its functions. Informationabout the life of such pointsis usually the an important argument in fixing an issue. specifically, topological tools of ?xed aspect idea were an expanding concentration of curiosity over the past century. those topological tools of ?xed aspect thought are divided, approximately conversing, into kinds. The ?rst sort comprises equivalent to the Banach Contraction precept the place the assumptions at the house should be very gentle yet a small switch of the map can get rid of the ?xed aspect. the second one kind, however, corresponding to the Brouwer and Lefschetz fastened aspect Theorems, supply the lifestyles of a ?xed aspect not just for a given map but additionally for any its deformations. This e-book is an exposition of part of the topological ?xed and periodic aspect conception, of this moment kind, in accordance with the notions of Lefschetz and Nielsen numbers. considering either notions are homotopyinvariants, the deformationis used as an important approach, and the assertions of theorems often country the lifestyles of ?xed or periodic issues for each map of the complete homotopy category, we confer with them as homotopy equipment of the topological ?xed and periodic aspect theory.

Show description

Read or Download Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points Theory PDF

Best geometry and topology books

Download e-book for kindle: Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses. A Textbook of Geometrical Optics by J P C Southall

The outgrowth of a process lectures on optics given in Columbia college. .. In a definite feel it can be regarded as an abridgment of my treatise at the ideas and techniques of geometrical optics

Get Glimpses of Algebra and Geometry, Second Edition PDF

Earlier variation offered 2000 copies in three years; Explores the sophisticated connections among quantity conception, Classical Geometry and glossy Algebra; Over one hundred eighty illustrations, in addition to textual content and Maple records, can be found through the internet facilitate realizing: http://mathsgi01. rutgers. edu/cgi-bin/wrap/gtoth/; includes an insert with 4-color illustrations; contains quite a few examples and worked-out difficulties

Additional info for Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points Theory

Example text

We assume that f is an isomorphism. Let us recall that the group Gl(R, n) has two connected components. If the matrix A representing the map f (in a fixed basis) satisfies det A > 0, then there is a path in Gl(R, n) joining A with the identity matrix. This yields a homotopy from f to the identity map idE . Now deg (f) = deg (idE ) = 1. If det A < 0, then f can be connected with the map g(t1 , . . , tn ) = (t1 , . . , tn−1 , −tn ). Now by Multiplicity deg (f) = −1. In each case deg (f) = sgn (det (A)).

We define ind (f) = ind (f| ). 24) Lemma. 1) ind (f) = 0 implies the existence of a fixed point of the map f: D → E. e. fs (x) = x for all x ∈ bd D, then ind (f0 ) = ind (f1 ). Proof. 1) ind (f| ) = ind (f) = 0 implies the existence of a fixed point x ∈ Fix (f| ). This is also a fixed point of f. 2) Since the homotopy {fs } has no fixed point on the boundary, its restriction fs| : int D → E is compactly fixed hence ind (f0| ) = ind (f1| ). It remains to recall that by the definition ind (fi ) = ind (fi| ) for i = 0, 1.

11) Lemma (Commutativity Property). Let U ⊂ E, U ⊂ E be open subsets of Euclidean spaces and let f: U → E and g: U → E be continuous maps. Then the composites gf: V = f −1 (U ) → E, fg: V = g−1 (U ) → E have homeomorphic fixed point sets Fix (gf) = Fix (fg). If moreover these sets are compact, then ind (fg) = ind (gf). Proof. The homeomorphisms are given by the restrictions: f| : Fix (gf) −→ ←− Fix (fg) : g|. In fact if gf(x) = x, then f(x) = f(gf(x)) = fg(f(x)), hence f(x) ∈ Fix(fg). Similarly g(Fix(fg)) ⊂ Fix(gf).

Download PDF sample

Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points Theory by Jerzy Jezierski

by James

Rated 4.72 of 5 – based on 33 votes