By Peter Neaverson, Marilyn Palmer
Industrial Archaeology makes use of the innovations of mainstream archaeological excavation, research and interpretation to provide an enlightening photo of business society.
know-how and background have, until eventually lately, been the focal issues of research in industrialization. Industrial Archaeology units out a coherent technique for the self-discipline which expands on and extends past the simply sensible research of commercial landscapes, constructions and artefacts to a broader attention in their cultural which means and cost. The authors study, for instance, the social context of industrialization, together with the impact of latest technique of creation on operating styles, vitamin and wellbeing and fitness.
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Extra resources for Industrial Archaeology: Principles and Practice
Smaller rivers can also be utilised for power but require more ingenious husbanding of the resource by the creation of artificial leats leading to storage ponds upstream of a mill. In regions of low rainfall, or at high altitudes, water may have to be collected over a vast area. Many miles of leats with a slight fall in their gradients have been dug along the hillsides, sometimes with short tunnels, leading to artificial storage reservoirs. Another use of a natural gradient may be for transport, using an inclined plane with rails for conveying waggons or even boats from one height to another.
In Gloucestershire, with its oldestablished water-powered woollen cloth industry, there were over 170 mills around 1820 but only 79 by 1840 and 20 by 1901. 5-mile stretch of the River Frome upstream from Wallbridge Mill in Stroud, a section of river with only a modest gradient (Tann 1967). Steam power was introduced in some mills to supplement the river as a power source, and St Mary’s Mill in Chalford still retains both its waterwheel and steam engine (Plate 9). In the iron industry, too, the use of steam power for blowing blast furnaces combined with the use of coke instead of charcoal as a fuel resulted in the migration of the industry from wooded hilly areas such as the Lake District and the Forest of Dean to the coalfields.
The effects of changes in scale upon the landscape are more obvious in the extractive industries producing stone, aggregate, coal and minerals. The copper-mining area centred on Rio Tinto in Spain represents one of the most spectacular mining landscapes in Europe, and has been worked from prehistoric times until the present day. The sites range from the open-trench workings, probably Chalcolithic in date, at Chinflon, Cuchillares and Monte Romero to the extensive Roman shafts and galleries in Corta Lago.
Industrial Archaeology: Principles and Practice by Peter Neaverson, Marilyn Palmer