By Jeremy Black
Kings, Nobles and Commoners takes head-on the major questions within the historical past of early sleek Europe--questions important for an realizing of the interval, and now on the most sensible of the background time table for teachers, scholars and normal readers. was once faith the badge of id and concept for the kingdom? What was once the character of the kingdom? Did Protestantism result in political and monetary growth and Catholicism to absolutism, decadence and extinction? Jeremy Black's revisionist heritage indicates that whereas "bourgeois" Protestant states just like the Netherlands and Britain prospered and, in Britain's case, turned a world energy. "Reactionary" Catholic states like Austria and France at quite a few instances remained sturdy until eventually the deluge of the French Revolution. "Absolutism" used to be no fantasy, yet absolutist states nonetheless needed to rule with consent. Jeremy Black hyperlinks those subject matters right into a wealthy and coherent tapestry to provide the clearest and such a lot authoritative photo of the complexities of the early smooth interval.
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Additional resources for Kings, Nobles and Commoners: States and Societies in Early Modern Europe
12 Furthermore, administrative development in France was not a unilinear process towards stronger state agencies. For example, the Company of General Farmers, the consortium of financiers who leased the collection of French indirect taxes, was, in the 1780s, solely responsible for the salt and tobacco taxes, and was employing or organising over 30,000 agents. The company served increasingly after 1749 as a source of credit and capital for the government, and as a mechanism for making payments. It also illustrated the potential for administrative efficiency in the period.
In the United Provinces (modern Netherlands), the weakness of central sources of revenue led to a dependence upon the individual provinces, which increased the emphasis on that level of government. Combined with the extensive role of credit, supporting a large public debt, this ensured that the central government lacked a large, permanent administrative apparatus. 15 Across Europe, new governmental agencies frequently supplemented, rather than replaced, existing administrative systems, and, necessarily so, as the number of their officials was limited and as they operated in a world that was resistant to new pretensions on the part of government.
In, by relative standards, small states, such as Denmark, Portugal and SavoyPiedmont, it was easier for a strong ruler to supervise government personally. A British memorandum of 1740 noted of Savoy-Piedmont, the laws are made by the King [Charles Emmanuel III, r. 1730–73]. He proposes a law in Council: They may advise against it, but if the King is still for it, their advice goes for nothing. 17 However, even in what might seem today to have been small states, the difficulties of coping with factionalism among officialdom, and of inculcating notions of state service and efficient administration, were considerable, while the earlier discussion of Tuscany is instructive.
Kings, Nobles and Commoners: States and Societies in Early Modern Europe by Jeremy Black