By W. Demtr"Oder
Retaining abreast of the most recent recommendations and purposes, this re-creation of the traditional reference and graduate textual content on laser spectroscopy has been thoroughly revised and improved. whereas the final notion is unchanged, the hot version contains a large array of latest fabric, e.g., frequency doubling in exterior cavities, trustworthy cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV resources, extra delicate detection ideas, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray sector and the attosecond range), regulate of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs in a position to synchronize self sustaining femtosecond lasers, coherent topic waves, and nonetheless extra functions in chemical research, clinical diagnostics, and engineering.
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Extra info for Laser Spectroscopy - Basic Concepts and Instrumentation
3a), and therefore parallel to the surface of the material; second, the electric field is in the plane of incidence15 (Fig. 3b). 4d) give E 0i +E 0r −E 0t = 0 and (E 0i −E 0r ) cos ψi − ( 1 /µ1 )1/2 E 0t cos ψt = 0. 7a) . 4d) lead to (E 0i − E 0r ) cos ψi − E 0t cos ψt = 0 and (E 0i + E 0r ) − ( 1 /µ1 )1/2 E 0t = 0. 7c) . 7d) 1/2 1/2 These formulas are valid for Nˆ complex. To cover the general case of an interface between two media (the material parameters of the first medium are indicated by a prime: 1 = 1, µ1 = 1, σ1 = 0; and the second medium without: 1 = 1, µ1 = 1, σ1 = 0), the following replacements in Fresnel’s formulas are sufficient: Nˆ → Nˆ / Nˆ and µ1 → µ1 /µ1 .
In Appendix B we explain how even this drawback of the definition can be overcome. 4 Changes of electromagnetic radiation at the interface 43 The real part RS , the surface resistance, determines the power absorption in the metal; the surface reactance X S accounts for the phase difference between E and J. Since the ratio of electric field to current density corresponds to a resistivity, the surface impedance can be interpreted as a resistance. Although mainly used in the characterization of the high frequency properties of metals, the concept of surface impedance is more general and is particularly useful if the thickness of the medium d is much larger than the skin depth δ0 .
D. M. P. Pitaevskii, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd edition (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1984) [Lan78] R. J. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. R. J. Harrison, Phys. Rev. L. H. M¨uller, Surf. Sci. F. M. A. A. van Tiggelen, Nature 381, 54 (1996); Phys. Rev. Lett. R. V. J. D. Swalen, The Attenuated Total Reflection Method, in: Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. D. Palik (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1991), p. 75 [Ste63] F. Stern, Elementary Theory of the Optical Properties of Solids, in: Solid State Physics 15, edited by F.
Laser Spectroscopy - Basic Concepts and Instrumentation by W. Demtr"Oder