By Nnamdi Anyadike
This record presents a close evaluation of the industry place and outlook in those heavily similar metals, provide and insist traits in every one separately and addressing key matters for the long run, together with the effect of advancements within the environmental area and the recycling marketplace.
- A transparent and specific research of the and its significant markets
- A survey of developments in mining, refining, processing, end-use and consumption
- Unique and marketplace forecasts
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Extra info for Lead and Zinc. Threats and Opportunities in the Years Ahead
E. the payable metal, is a fixed proportion of the lead content. This is 95% of the contained metal, or the concentrate grade, less a three-unit deduction, whichever is the lower. The payable metal content is priced with reference to LME quotes. Contract treatment charges are negotiated on an annual basis and are typically representative of the prevailing 38 SUPPLY concentrate market conditions at the time of negotiation. The balance between mine production and smelter demand, along with existing concentrate stock levels, effectively drives T/Cs.
Production began in 1989, and mining is by conventional truck and shovel methods with special provisions for operating in an Arctic climate. Zinc and lead concentrates are trucked 85 km from the mine to the port site on the Chukchi Sea, and stored until the three-month summer shipping season. Concentrates are lightered to ocean-going vessels moored about 6 km offshore. The operation produces more than one million tonnes of combined zinc and lead concentrate, most of which is zinc. In 1998, the operation completed a Production Rate Increase.
Located in Skelleftehamn, approximately 20 km east of the town of Skellefte, Rônnskâr is also a large producer of sulphuric acid, as well as selenium, nickel sulphate and palladium concentrates. The Rônnskâr smelter, which was built to accommodate concentrates so rich in arsenic that no other European smelter could handle them, has grown and continues to expand its production capacity. The Bergsue secondary lead smelter recycles all spent lead-acid batteries collected in Sweden and most of those collected in Norway, Denmark and Finland.
Lead and Zinc. Threats and Opportunities in the Years Ahead by Nnamdi Anyadike