By T. Q. Khan, P. Bodrogi, Q. T. Vinh, H. Winkler
Selling the layout, program and evaluate of visually and electrically potent LED mild resources and luminaires for basic indoor lights in addition to open air and automobile lighting fixtures, this ebook combines the information of LED lights know-how with human perceptual features for lights scientists and engineers.
After an advent to the human visible method and present radiometry, photometry and colour technological know-how, the fundamentals of LED chip and phosphor expertise are defined by way of particular problems with LED radiometry and the optical, thermal and electrical modeling of LEDs. this is often supplemented by way of the proper useful problems with pulsed LEDs, distant phosphor LEDs and the getting older of LED mild assets. correct human visible points heavily with regards to LED know-how are defined intimately for the photopic and the mesopic variety of imaginative and prescient, together with colour rendering, binning, whiteness, Circadian matters, in addition to flicker belief, brightness, visible functionality, conspicuity and incapacity glare. the subject of LED luminaires is mentioned in a separate bankruptcy, together with retrofit LED lamps, LED-based highway and road luminaires and LED luminaires for museum and college lights. particular sections are dedicated to the modularity of LED luminaires, their getting older and the making plans and evaluate tools of recent LED installations. the full is rounded off via a precis and a glance in the direction of destiny developments.
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Additional info for LED Lighting: Technology and Perception
O, optic disk – the point at which the optic nerve passes through the eye and transmits the preprocessed neural signals of the retina toward the visual cortex. The optical system of the human eye is a complex, slightly decentered lens system projecting an inverted and downsized image of the environment onto the retina. The cornea, the anterior chamber, and the iris constitute the front part of this optical system and then, the posterior chamber and the biconvex eye lens follow. The lens is held by the zonule ﬁbers.
16). 15, the two sets of color matching functions, that is, x(????), y(????), z(????) and x10 (????), y10 (????), z10 (????) diﬀer signiﬁcantly. The consequence is that two matching (homogeneous) color 25 26 2 The Human Visual System and Its Modeling for Lighting Engineering stimuli subtending, for example, 1∘ of visual angle will not match in a general case if their size is increased to, for example, 10∘ . The so-called chromaticity coordinates (x, y, z) are deﬁned by Eq. 19). 19) The diagram of the chromaticity coordinates x, y is called the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram or the CIE (x, y) chromaticity diagram .
4), then this dataset characterizes the image of that object projected to the retina by the optical system of the eye. This is the stimulus for the photoreceptor mosaic of the eye which is being captured by the L, M, and S cones and processed by the retina and later the visual brain. 41) and not the total luminous ﬂux of the light source. 5 Degrees of Eﬃciency for Electric Light Sources From the point of view of electric power consumption and light output of the light source, the following three eﬃciency measures are deﬁned: 1) Radiant eﬃciency: energy conversion eﬃciency with which the light source converts electrical power (P) into radiant ﬂux (Φe ), the ratio of the total output 21 22 2 The Human Visual System and Its Modeling for Lighting Engineering radiant ﬂux (Φe ) to the input electrical power (P), see Eq.
LED Lighting: Technology and Perception by T. Q. Khan, P. Bodrogi, Q. T. Vinh, H. Winkler