By Alexander A. Demkov, Alexandra Navrotsky
This ebook offers the basics of novel gate dielectrics which are being brought into semiconductor production to make sure the continual scaling of CMOS units. As this can be a speedily evolving box of analysis we elect to target the fabrics that ensure the functionality of gadget purposes. every one of these fabrics are transition steel oxides. mockingly, the d-orbitals chargeable for the excessive dielectric consistent reason serious integration problems, therefore intrinsically restricting high-k dielectrics. notwithstanding new within the electronics a lot of those fabrics are recognized within the box of ceramics, and we describe this specified connection. The complexity of the structure-property family members in TM oxides calls for using cutting-edge first-principles calculations. numerous chapters supply a close description of the fashionable conception of polarization, and heterojunction band discontinuity in the framework of the density useful thought. Experimental tools contain oxide soften resolution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering and different optical characterization thoughts, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Many of the issues encountered on the planet of CMOS also are appropriate for different semiconductors comparable to GaAs. A finished assessment of contemporary advancements during this box is therefore additionally given. The publication should be of curiosity to these actively engaged in gate dielectric examine, and to graduate scholars in fabrics technological know-how, fabrics Physics, fabrics Chemistry, and electric Engineering.
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Extra resources for Materials fundamentals of gate dielectrics
Typically the ionic polarization is limited to lower frequencies than the electronic polarization and materials with both ionic and electronic polarization exhibit frequency dependent dielectric constants (16). While dielectric constants higher than silicon dioxide are required in a high-k material, dielectric constants that are too high can degrade device performance. In scaled CMOS devices effects called short channel effects can occur. When the gate couples directly to the source or drain instead of to the channel, it loses some control over the charge in the channel and short channel effects occur.
Charges induced on the gate from this applied bias are balanced by charges in the semiconductor under the insulating oxide layer. These charges can be used to accumulate, deplete or invert the surface of the semiconductor closest to the insulator. A. Demkov and A. ), Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics, 37–55. C 2005 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands. 38 KURT EISENBEISER Fig. 1. Energy band diagram of MOS capacitor. increase in the carrier concentration compared to the zero bias state.
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Materials fundamentals of gate dielectrics by Alexander A. Demkov, Alexandra Navrotsky