By D. Astruc
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Additional resources for Nanoparticles and Catalysts [Vol 1]
2002, 2, 999). of dendrimers that can also bridge PdNPs. In both situations, the dendrimers clearly stabilize small nanoparticles by a combination of polyligand and steric effects. Whether these dendrimer-stabilized PdNPs are the active species in Pd catalysis or reservoirs of much smaller, very active, Pd fragments, is unclear. In Chapter 4, Bert Chandler and John D. Gilbertson also review, in addition to homogeneous DEN catalysis, their use of dendrimer-protected NPs heterogeneous systems. Indeed, Chandler’s group has grafted DENs (including bimetallic ones) onto a variety of solid supports and used the resulting solids as heterogeneous catalysts, for instance for CO oxidation.
The Jones group has recently published an important comprehensive review on the nature of active species in Pd-catalyzed Heck and Suzuki–Miyaura reactions [31o]. 5). Other metal NP catalysts are also known, for instance Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation [5c] and Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation using transitionmetal complexes. RuNPs have also been shown to catalyze the Heck reaction [31q]. In Chapter 10, Laurent Djakovitch, Klaus Köhler and Johannes G. de Vries review the role of PdNPs as pre-catalysts for C−C coupling reactions.
With standard PVP-stabilized NP catalysts, parameters such as size and stability during the catalytic process have been examined. For instance, decreasing the PdNP size down to 3 nm in the Suzuki reaction improved the catalytic activity, suggesting that the low-coordination number vertex and edge atoms on the particle surface are active catalytic sites . 1) [14a], polyacrylonitrile and /or polyacrylic acid (Fig. 2) [14b], multilayer polyelectrolyte ﬁlms (Fig. 3) [14c], polysilane shell-cross-linked micelles (Fig.
Nanoparticles and Catalysts [Vol 1] by D. Astruc