Download e-book for iPad: Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers by John Carroll

By John Carroll

ISBN-10: 0750684909

ISBN-13: 9780750684903

This can be the main exhaustive research to this point on typical gasoline hydrates. inspite of their value, hydrates are misunderstood, and misconceptions abound. This e-book presents a correct overview of what hydrates are and lower than what stipulations they are going to shape, and it presents the engineer with the the right way to expect the occurrences of hydrates. The petroleum spends hundreds of thousands each year to strive against the formation of hydrates, the cast, crystalline compounds that shape from water and small molecules, harmful apparatus and plugging transmission strains. knowing how, whilst, and the place they shape and utilizing this data to use treatments in sensible purposes are an important.

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With acid gases, the water content is larger in the liquid phase than it is in the vapor. REFERENCES 1. von Stackelberg M. Feste gashydrate. Naturwissenschaften 1949;36:327–33. 2. Ng H-J, Robinson DB. The role of n-butane in hydrate formation. AIChE J 1976;22:656–61. 3. Hafemann DR, Miller SL. The clathrate hydrates of cyclopropane. J Phys Chem 1969;73:1392–97. 4. Majid YA, Garg SK, Davidson DW. Dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance properties of a clathrate hydrate of cyclopropane. Can J Chem 1969;47:4697–99.

The first problem is that the data are a little less reliable. Second these loci tend to be very step (dP/dT is very large). 3) where P is in MPa and T is in K. 9, The values for hydrogen sulfide are from Carroll and Mather [9] and the others were determined as a part of this study. Unfortunately, the data for propane are poor and a good correlation was not obtained. 15 QUADRUPLE POINTS The intersection of four three-phase loci is a quadruple point. 10 summarizes the quadruple points for hydrate formers commonly encountered in natural gas.

Such pressures do not exist on the surface of the Earth. 5 Others Sulfur dioxide also forms a hydrate. This is somewhat surprising because SO2 is fairly soluble in water, and is probably the most soluble component that still forms a hydrate. As a rule of thumb, gases more soluble than SO2 do not form hydrates. 18 Mixtures 39 Small mercaptans (methanethiol, ethanethiol, and propanethiol) are also hydrate formers. Another interesting compound that forms a hydrate is ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical, usually as a precursor to other chemicals.

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