By April Carter
Anarchism is an important yet really ignored of political notion. April Carter examines the anarchist critique of the nation, of forms, of democratic executive and contrasts this angle with extra orthodox political thought. She additionally considers anarchist theories and social and monetary association, the relevance of anarchism to modern stipulations and the issues of idealism in politics.
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Hobbes explains that the only way the participants in the social contract can erect a common power to defend them is : to confer all their power and strength upon one man, or upon one assembly of men, that may reduce all their wills, by plurality of voices, unto one will ... (112). In this way Hobbes sees the multitude being united in one 'person', who combines the power of all individuals under the direction of a unifying will to create 'that great LEVIATHAN, or rather to speak more reverently of that mortal god, to which we owe under the immortal God our peace and defence'.
Whilst the former was hushing up a scandal about the Socialist Party, the second in command of the latter was allegedly trying to frame two Socialist Ministers whom he wanted to have shot (see Philip Williams, Politics in Post-War France, 387). Nor is a secret police excluded by a tradition of liberalism. In 1965 an Observer article estimated there were police dossiers on two million political suspects in Britain. Hannah Arendt comments that 'the secret services have rightly been called a state within the state, and this not only in despotisms but also under constitutional or semiconstitutional governments' (The Origins of Totalitarianism, 425).
But Hobbes insisted that logically his theory applied equally to a governing assembly, who could claim to represent and so embody the wills of the people. This point is important, as De Jouvenel brings out. Other theorists 32 Anarchism and the State more or less contemporary with Hobbes were claiming that the King's right to rule derived from divine authority. But Hobbes made the real source of authority the people. The sovereign monarch is at the same time the representative of the people; his will represents their wills, and the absoluteness of his power stems from this delegation of authority.
Political Theory of Anarchism by April Carter